Vertical Farming 2022-2032: IDTechEx


1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.1. Report overview 1.2. The problem with agriculture 1.3. Is vertical farming the answer? 1.4. Components of a vertical farm 1.5. Technologies: key findings 1.6. Vertical farming: expectations vs reality 1.7. Vertical farms: SWOT analysis 1.8. Production and running costs (OPEX) of a vertical farm 1.9. Challenges in vertical farming 1.10. Vertical farming’s struggle with profitability 1.11. What crops do vertical farms grow? 1.12. The effects of rising oil prices and supply chain disruptions 1.13. Vertical farming facilities: better to go big or small? 1.14. The vertical farming value chain 1.15. The three main business models in vertical farming 1.16. Investments in vertical farming 1.17. Vertically farmed produce: global forecast 2. INTRODUCTION 2.1. Overview 2.1.1. The problem with agriculture 2.1.2. Is vertical farming the answer? 2.1.3. How does vertical farming work? 2.1.4. The case for vertical farming 2.1.5. Drivers of vertical farming 2.1.6. Challenges in vertical farming 2.1.7. What crops can vertical farming grow? 2.1.8. Vertical farming vs other production methods 2.1.9. The definition of a vertical farm for this report 2.2. Components of a vertical farm 2.2.1. Structures 2.2.2. Growing systems 2.2.3. Lighting 2.2.4. Nutrient supply: Hydroponics 2.2.5. Nutrient supply: Aeroponics 2.2.6. Nutrient supply: Aquaponics 2.2.7. Air conditioning 2.2.8. CO2 supply unit 2.2.9. Environmental control units 3. TECHNOLOGIES IN VERTICAL FARMING 3.1. Overview 3.1.1. What is needed for a vertical farm? 3.2. Growing techniques 3.2.1. Hydroponics vs aeroponics 3.2.2. Aeroponics technologies 3.2.3. AeroFarms 3.2.4. How does AeroFarms’ system work? 3.2.5. LettUs Grow 3.2.6. Vertical growth walls and towers 3.2.7. Are vertical growth towers more efficient? 3.2.8. Are vertical growth towers more efficient? 3.2.9. Plenty 3.2.10. Aquaponics: overview 3.2.11. Historical precedents for aquaponics 3.2.12. Upward Farms 3.2.13. The trouble with aquaponics 3.2.14. Reasons why aquaponics is often unprofitable 3.2.15. The differences between aquaponics vertical farms and rice-fish farms 3.2.16. How much fish can aquaponics farms produce? 3.2.17. Are aquaponics systems economically viable? 3.3. LEDs and lighting 3.3.1. LEDs and photosynthesis 3.3.2. Photosynthesis and yield 3.3.3. Maximising photosynthesis 3.3.4. Light “recipes” for indoor crop growth 3.3.5. Light recipe has a major impact on the crop 3.3.6. Choosing the right LEDs for a vertical farm 3.3.7. Choosing LED grow lights for vertical farming 3.3.8. Signify 3.3.9. Signify GreenPower production module specifications 3.3.10. LumiGrow 3.3.11. Heliospectra 3.3.12. Heliospectra’s product families 3.3.13. Improving LED technology and vertical farming 3.3.14. Sherpa Space 3.4. Environmental control 3.4.1. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) 3.4.2. Factors in HVAC systems 3.4.3. The importance of sensors and data 3.4.4. Where can sensors be used in a vertical farm? 3.4.5. CO2 sensors are essential for vertical farms 3.4.6. The importance of light sensors 3.4.7. Light sensors – complete spectrum vs. multispectral 3.4.8. Smart sensor companies in horticulture 3.4.9. Aranet 3.4.10. IDTechEx reports on sensors 3.5. Automation in vertical farming 3.5.1. Automation levels in vertical farming 3.5.2. Automation is not yet widespread in vertical farming 3.5.3. Technology adoption in vertical farming 3.5.4. Industry leaders look towards increasing automation 3.5.5. Automation: environmental control 3.5.6. Autogrow 3.5.7. Priva 3.5.8. Automation: nutrient control 3.5.9. Imagination Garden 3.5.10. Automation: light recipes 3.5.11. Bowery Farming 3.5.12. Taking automation beyond level 2 3.5.13. Logiqs 3.5.14. Is automation worth it? 3.5.15. Intelligent Growth Solutions 3.5.16. SananBio US 3.5.17. Jones Food Company 3.5.18. What could automation provide? – 1 3.5.19. What could automation provide? – 2 3.5.20. Automation and robotics in conventional agriculture 3.6. Pests and diseases 3.6.1. Pests and diseases 3.6.2. Pest management 3.6.3. Common diseases in vertical farming 3.7. Container farming 3.7.1. Container farming 3.7.2. Freight Farms 3.7.3. Advantages of container farming 3.7.4. Disadvantages of container farming – 1 3.7.5. Disadvantages of container farming – 2 3.7.6. Vertical Crop Consultants 3.7.7. Is container farming a good idea? 3.7.8. A comparison of container farms 3.7.9. Cubic Farm Systems Corp. 3.7.10. Urban Crop Solutions 3.7.11. FarmBox Foods 4. CHALLENGES IN VERTICAL FARMING 4.1. Challenges in vertical farming 4.2. The risks of vertical farming 4.3. Vertical farming: ambitious expectations 4.4. PodPonics 4.5. FarmedHere 4.6. Upwards Farms is scaling up: is this a good idea? 4.7. The argument against vertical farming 4.8. The argument for vertical farming 4.9. Vertical farming’s struggle with profitability 4.10. Case study: AeroFarms 4.11. Vertical farming’s high start-up costs 4.12. Can vertical farming save cropland? 4.13. The cost of labour 4.14. The cost of power 4.15. Vertical farming: expectations vs reality 4.16. Is all well at Plenty? 4.17. The importance of location 4.18. Growing Underground 4.19. To succeed, vertical farms must be productive 4.20. Vertical farming facilities: better to go big or small? 4.21. Marketing and pricing products 4.22. Vertical farming: the food industry, not the tech industry 4.23. The importance of company direction 4.24. Crop One Holdings 4.25. The need for collaboration 4.26. 80 Acres 4.27. Infinite Acres 5. THE ECONOMICS OF VERTICAL FARMING 5.1. Vertical farming vs conventional agriculture 5.1.1. What crops do vertical farms grow? 5.1.2. Vertically farmed produce has a cost premium 5.1.3. The price of non-organic vegetables in the USA 5.1.4. The retail price of iceberg lettuce in the USA 5.1.5. How productive is an average farm? 5.1.6. The costs of growing romaine lettuce on a farm 5.1.7. The impact of fuel prices on fruit and vegetable prices 5.1.8. The impact of fuel prices on fruit and vegetable prices 5.1.9. Could rising oil prices make vertical farming economical? 5.1.10. Vertical farming and the fruit and vegetable supply chain 5.1.11. The effects of supply chain disruptions 5.1.12. A breakdown of food dollars: fresh vegetables at retail 5.1.13. Pricing vertically farmed crops: the Starbucks approach? 5.1.14. Vertical farmed produce vs. organic produce 5.1.15. Beyond iceberg lettuce 5.1.16. Industry leaders are looking to move beyond leafy greens 5.1.17. What crops are vertical farming companies looking to grow? 5.1.18. Oishii : luxury strawberries 5.1.19. Smallhold 5.1.20. Could mushrooms be an important crop for vertical farms? 5.1.21. Cannabis 5.1.22. Should vertical farms change their focus? 5.2. The benefits of local production 5.2.1. The growing market for local food 5.2.2. Organic certification: worth the investment? 5.2.3. How much will consumers pay for local food? 5.2.4. Will consumers pay more for vertically farmed produce? 5.2.5. Presenting vertically farmed produce 5.2.6. Miravel 5.2.7. Natufia 5.2.8. The value of growing at home 5.2.9. The economics and sustainability of food miles 5.2.10. Food miles are a poor measure of sustainability 5.2.11. Is local production economically beneficial? 5.3. Running costs of a vertical farm 5.3.1. Production and running costs (OPEX) of a vertical farm 5.3.2. The power requirements for vertical farming 5.3.3. Vertical farms generally use more electricity than greenhouses 5.3.4. The lighting costs of different crops 5.3.5. Could photovoltaics improve the energy costs? 5.3.6. LED costs vary by colour 5.3.7. Is vertical farming sustainable? 5.3.8. The global feasibility of vertical farming 6. MARKETS 6.1. Business Models in vertical farming 6.1.1. The vertical farming value chain 6.1.2. Retailers for major vertical farms * 6.1.3. The three main business models in vertical farming 6.1.4. Turnkey farm solutions: Infarm 6.1.5. Turnkey farm solutions: Agrilution 6.1.6. AeroFarms: the Amazon model? 6.1.7. Investments in vertical farming 6.1.8. Connecting with citizens: vertical farming and social innovation 6.2. Vertical farming across geographies 6.2.1. Consumer perceptions with geography 6.2.2. Vertical farming in the USA 6.2.3. Kalera 6.2.4. Square Roots 6.2.5. Food recalls in the USA 6.2.6. Vertical farming in Europe 6.2.7. The state of farming in Europe 6.2.8. The Netherlands leads the world in greenhouse growing 6.2.9. Dutch agritech – implications for vertical farming 6.2.10. Agricool 6.2.11. Vertical farming in the Middle East 6.2.12. Badia Farms 6.2.13. Vertical farming in Japan 6.2.14. Vertical farming in Japan – top 20 producers 6.2.15. Spread Co., Ltd. 6.2.16. Spread Co., Ltd. Production facilities 6.2.17. Vertical farming in China 6.2.18. Is China ready for vertical farming? 6.2.19. Fujian Sanan Sino-Science Photobiotech Co., Ltd 6.2.20. Singapore: ripe for vertical farming? 6.2.21. Urban farming in Singapore 6.2.22. Sustenir 7. FORECASTS 7.1. Vertical farming: outlook 7.2. Vertically farmed produce 7.2.1. Organic fruit and vegetable sales in the USA and EU+UK 7.2.2. Assessment of previous forecasts 7.2.3. Vertically farmed produce: global forecast 7.2.4. Vertically farmed produce: global forecast data 7.2.5. Vertically farmed produce forecast: North America 7.2.6. Vertically farmed produce forecast: Europe 7.2.7. Vertically farmed produce forecast: Japan 7.2.8. Vertically farmed produce forecast: China 7.3. Vertical farming hardware 7.3.1. Container farming forecast (global) 7.3.2. Turnkey vertical farming hardware forecast (not container farms, global) 8. COMPANY PROFILES 8.1. Access to over 30 company profiles from the IDTechEx Portal

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