Malls Weren't Supposed to be Like This


Victor Gruen is considered the father of shopping malls, but he envisioned something more than shopping centers surrounded by asphalt parking lots.

0:00 The Car Centric Shopping Experience
3:30 Purpose of a Mall
6:00 The Gruen Effect
7:09 Victor Gruen & Suburbia
11:22 Southdale Center
12:42 A Tragic Downgrading in Quality
14:29 The Golden Age of the Mall
15:20 Malls Are Dying
17:02 Chance for New Life
20:17 Leave Downtown, Downtown


Mall Maker Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream

SouthTowne Crossing Commercial:

Vehicle Trips By Purpose

Mall Walkers of Meadowood Mall

How Ikea mastered the Gruen effect

Customer Impulse Purchasing Behavior

Impact of ambient odors on mall shoppers’ emotions, cognition, and spending

Why the inventor of the shopping mall denounced his dream

Southdale Center: America’s first shopping mall

Father of shopping centers disowns his progeny

America’s Suburban Experiment

This Man Is the Father of Modern American Suburbia

Victor Gruen Wanted to Make Our Suburbs More Urban. Instead, He Invented the Mall

Southdale, the World’s First Shopping Mall, Celebrates 60 Years

Weather-Conditioned Shopping Center Opens

Nov. 28, 1956: Frank Lloyd Wright at Southdale

The rise and fall of the American mall

Malls are dying. The thriving ones are spending millions to reinvent themselves.

25% of U.S. malls are expected to shut within 5 years.

Reno Entertainment District


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